<th id="n8lpc"></th>

<button id="n8lpc"><object id="n8lpc"></object></button>

  • <dd id="n8lpc"></dd>

    <tbody id="n8lpc"></tbody>
    立即打開
    在室內到底要不要戴口罩?美國企業想不明白

    在室內到底要不要戴口罩?美國企業想不明白

    Sy Muhkerjee 2021年08月01日
    由于聯邦、州和地方對室內戴口罩的態度不僅大相徑庭,而且不斷變化,讓美國企業陷入困惑。

    美國疾病控制與預防中心(CDC)再次改變了它對完全接種新冠疫苗的美國人在室內戴口罩的指導意見。此舉似乎很突然,但考慮到過去一個月美國新感染病例激增,這種轉變其實只是時間問題。疾控中心現在建議居住在新冠病例激增地區(特別是德爾塔變異毒株肆虐的地區)的美國人在商店、餐廳、電影院等公共室內場所佩戴口罩,即使他們已經接種了兩劑輝瑞(Pfizer)、Moderna疫苗或一針強生(Johnson & Johnson)疫苗。

    這意味著,由于聯邦、州和地方對室內戴口罩的態度不僅大相徑庭,而且不斷變化,原本就搖擺不定的美國大小企業在如何維護公共安全方面陷入了又一輪困惑。其中許多企業已經放松了對室內戴口罩的要求。

    在其更新的指導意見中,疾控中心還效仿美國兒科學會(AAP)的做法——該學會最近建議所有學生在今年秋天重返校園時在室內戴口罩——建議無論是否接種疫苗,無論學校周圍社區的感染病例是否激增,全體師生、學校工作人員和造訪者都應該佩戴口罩。而就在幾個月前,疾控中心表示,一旦接種疫苗,停止嚴格的室內戴口罩要求,大體上是安全的。

    “德爾塔變異毒株每天都在顯示,它想變得比我們更聰明?!奔部刂行闹魅瘟_謝爾·瓦倫斯基在宣布新建議的新聞發布會上說,“這不是我們疾控中心輕易做出的決定?!?/p>

    困擾企業的問題是,疾控中心的建議并沒有充分的法律效力,也缺乏足夠的執行機制?,F在仍然要由州和地方政府來出臺明確的法律要求。即使如此,一些地方的執法人員可能不打算懲處違規行為。這很容易導致企業采取見機行事的態度,一邊等待政府行動,一邊試探執法措施可能有多嚴格(以及企業自身想要多嚴格)。

    對于學校以外的場所,美國疾控中心建議在每10萬居民中一周新增病例超過50例的縣,所有居民都應在室內佩戴口罩。這包括46%正在竭力應對高水平社區傳播的縣,以及17%正在經歷高水平傳播的縣。例如,在科羅拉多州,64個縣中有38個(即59%的縣)達到了疾控中心確定的病例激增閾值。

    據美國退休人員協會(AARP)統計,截至7月28日,有8個州——加利福尼亞、康涅狄格、夏威夷、伊利諾伊、內華達、新墨西哥、紐約和華盛頓——以及波多黎各和哥倫比亞特區實施了室內戴口罩規定。然而,只有夏威夷和內華達州要求,即使完全接種的美國人也要在公共室內場所戴口罩。內華達州的要求原定于7月30日失效,在疾控中心宣布新指導意見之后,該州恢復了一項全面的口罩強制令。

    甚至在疾控中心發布新指導意見之前,多個州的地方政府就采取了這項政策,其中包括加州的洛杉磯縣和密蘇里州的圣路易斯縣。在位于馬薩諸塞州科德角地區的度假勝地普羅溫斯敦,由于7月4日美國獨立日假期結束后,新冠感染病例迅速激增,官員們在周末召開緊急會議,恢復了室內戴口罩規定。但即使在那些勉強接受重新回歸的室內戴口罩要求的地區,當地零售和小商店老板也可能被迫經歷尷尬的對峙場面——許多顧客已經對口罩心生厭倦,尤其是在剛剛體驗了寬松的防疫要求之后。

    那些大公司呢?蘋果(Apple)已經改變了此前的立場,即完全接種疫苗的顧客和員工不必在零售店內戴口罩。該公司現在要求在病例不斷增加的地區必須戴口罩。但在疾控中心發布新指導意見之后,美國許多最大的連鎖店仍然保持沉默,特別是那些已經放松了對入店顧客防疫要求的大型零售商,其中包括沃爾瑪(Walmart)、好市多(Costco)和塔吉特(Target)。

    這些公司(以及它們開展業務的州和地方)的應對計劃將在未來幾周變得更加清晰。但可以肯定的是,不斷演變的新冠疫情亂局再次讓各級政府和廣大企業主背負上了沉甸甸的責任。隨著秋季流感季日益迫近,他們必須想方設法地平息一場由德爾塔變異毒株驅動,很可能極具破壞性的感染浪潮。(財富中文網)

    譯者:任文科

    美國疾病控制與預防中心(CDC)再次改變了它對完全接種新冠疫苗的美國人在室內戴口罩的指導意見。此舉似乎很突然,但考慮到過去一個月美國新感染病例激增,這種轉變其實只是時間問題。疾控中心現在建議居住在新冠病例激增地區(特別是德爾塔變異毒株肆虐的地區)的美國人在商店、餐廳、電影院等公共室內場所佩戴口罩,即使他們已經接種了兩劑輝瑞(Pfizer)、Moderna疫苗或一針強生(Johnson & Johnson)疫苗。

    這意味著,由于聯邦、州和地方對室內戴口罩的態度不僅大相徑庭,而且不斷變化,原本就搖擺不定的美國大小企業在如何維護公共安全方面陷入了又一輪困惑。其中許多企業已經放松了對室內戴口罩的要求。

    在其更新的指導意見中,疾控中心還效仿美國兒科學會(AAP)的做法——該學會最近建議所有學生在今年秋天重返校園時在室內戴口罩——建議無論是否接種疫苗,無論學校周圍社區的感染病例是否激增,全體師生、學校工作人員和造訪者都應該佩戴口罩。而就在幾個月前,疾控中心表示,一旦接種疫苗,停止嚴格的室內戴口罩要求,大體上是安全的。

    “德爾塔變異毒株每天都在顯示,它想變得比我們更聰明?!奔部刂行闹魅瘟_謝爾·瓦倫斯基在宣布新建議的新聞發布會上說,“這不是我們疾控中心輕易做出的決定?!?/p>

    困擾企業的問題是,疾控中心的建議并沒有充分的法律效力,也缺乏足夠的執行機制?,F在仍然要由州和地方政府來出臺明確的法律要求。即使如此,一些地方的執法人員可能不打算懲處違規行為。這很容易導致企業采取見機行事的態度,一邊等待政府行動,一邊試探執法措施可能有多嚴格(以及企業自身想要多嚴格)。

    對于學校以外的場所,美國疾控中心建議在每10萬居民中一周新增病例超過50例的縣,所有居民都應在室內佩戴口罩。這包括46%正在竭力應對高水平社區傳播的縣,以及17%正在經歷高水平傳播的縣。例如,在科羅拉多州,64個縣中有38個(即59%的縣)達到了疾控中心確定的病例激增閾值。

    據美國退休人員協會(AARP)統計,截至7月28日,有8個州——加利福尼亞、康涅狄格、夏威夷、伊利諾伊、內華達、新墨西哥、紐約和華盛頓——以及波多黎各和哥倫比亞特區實施了室內戴口罩規定。然而,只有夏威夷和內華達州要求,即使完全接種的美國人也要在公共室內場所戴口罩。內華達州的要求原定于7月30日失效,在疾控中心宣布新指導意見之后,該州恢復了一項全面的口罩強制令。

    甚至在疾控中心發布新指導意見之前,多個州的地方政府就采取了這項政策,其中包括加州的洛杉磯縣和密蘇里州的圣路易斯縣。在位于馬薩諸塞州科德角地區的度假勝地普羅溫斯敦,由于7月4日美國獨立日假期結束后,新冠感染病例迅速激增,官員們在周末召開緊急會議,恢復了室內戴口罩規定。但即使在那些勉強接受重新回歸的室內戴口罩要求的地區,當地零售和小商店老板也可能被迫經歷尷尬的對峙場面——許多顧客已經對口罩心生厭倦,尤其是在剛剛體驗了寬松的防疫要求之后。

    那些大公司呢?蘋果(Apple)已經改變了此前的立場,即完全接種疫苗的顧客和員工不必在零售店內戴口罩。該公司現在要求在病例不斷增加的地區必須戴口罩。但在疾控中心發布新指導意見之后,美國許多最大的連鎖店仍然保持沉默,特別是那些已經放松了對入店顧客防疫要求的大型零售商,其中包括沃爾瑪(Walmart)、好市多(Costco)和塔吉特(Target)。

    這些公司(以及它們開展業務的州和地方)的應對計劃將在未來幾周變得更加清晰。但可以肯定的是,不斷演變的新冠疫情亂局再次讓各級政府和廣大企業主背負上了沉甸甸的責任。隨著秋季流感季日益迫近,他們必須想方設法地平息一場由德爾塔變異毒株驅動,很可能極具破壞性的感染浪潮。(財富中文網)

    譯者:任文科

    The Centers for Disease Control's (CDC's) seemingly abrupt shift on indoor masking guidance for Americans who are fully vaccinated against COVID was really just a matter of time, given the groundswell of new U.S. cases over the past month. The CDC now recommends that people who live in areas where COVID cases are surging (especially due to the alarming rise of the Delta variant) wear masks in public indoor settings such as stores, restaurants, movie theaters, and other such venues even if they've already received two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines or a shot of Johnson & Johnson's coronavirus jab.

    And that means American businesses large and small alike which have already whipsawed between wildly divergent and ever-shifting federal, state, and local guidance on indoor masking are in for another round of confusion on how to maintain public safety after many of them had already loosened their indoor mask requirements.

    In its updated guidance mere months after indicating it was for the most part safe to stop strictly masking indoors once vaccinated, the CDC also followed the lead of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) — which recently recommended that all students wear masks indoors when returning to school this fall — by suggesting that everyone from teachers to students to visitors and staff at schools should be required to wear masks regardless of vaccination status and irrespective of whether or not cases are surging in that school's surrounding community.

    “The Delta variant is showing every day its willingness to outsmart us,” CDC director Rochelle Walensky said at a news briefing announcing the new recommendations. “This is not a decision we at CDC have made lightly.”

    The trouble for businesses is that the CDC's recommendations don't have the full force of the law or an enforcement mechanism. It's still up to state and local governments to dictate what the exact legal requirements are for masking, and even then some locales may have law enforcement officials who don't plan on doling out repercussions for a failure to comply. That could easily lead to businesses simply playing things by ear as they wait for government action and feel out how strict enforcement measures might be (and how strict the businesses themselves want to be).

    The CDC guidance outside of school settings recommends that all Americans wear masks in indoor settings in counties where there are more than 50 new COVID cases per 100,000 residents in a week. That encompasses some 46% of all U.S. counties that are grappling with high levels of community transmission and another 17% that are experiencing a substantial level of transmission. In Colorado, for instance, 38 out of 64, or 59%, of all counties meet the CDC's threshold for a surge in cases.

    As of July 28, eight U.S. states—California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, and Washington—plus Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia have indoor mask mandates in place, according to the AARP. However, only Hawaii and Nevada require even fully vaccinated Americans to mask in public indoor settings, and Nevada's requirement was set to lapse on July 30 before the state reinstated a blanket mandate following the CDC announcement.

    Locales in multiple states had taken it upon themselves to adopt the CDC's new guidance even before it was released, including Los Angeles County in California and Missouri's St. Louis County. Officials in Provincetown of Massachusetts' Cape Cod region held an emergency meeting over the weekend and reinstated its indoor mask mandate after a rapid surge of COVID cases following the 4th of July holiday. But even in regions that are begrudgingly accepting a return to indoor masking, local retail and small store owners may be forced to have awkward confrontations with people who are simply sick of masks, especially after a small taste of laxer protocols.

    As for larger firms? Apple has already reversed its earlier position that fully vaccinated customers and employees don't have to wear masks in retail stores and is now requiring masks in areas with a growing case count. But many of the nation's largest chains are still mum on what they plan to do with the CDC's new guidance, especially big retailers that had loosened their in-store safety requirements for customers. That includes the likes of Walmart, Costco, and Target.

    What these companies — and the states and locales in which they operate — plan to do will become clearer in the coming weeks. But what's certain is the chaotic dynamism of the COVID pandemic is once again heaping a lot of responsibility onto the backs of individual governments and business owners to quell what could become a devastating wave of Delta variant-driven COVID cases heading into the fall flu season.

    最新:
    • 熱讀文章
    • 熱門視頻
    活動
    掃碼打開財富Plus App